Defective Drugs

Although we are fortunate to have access to numerous medications intended to keep us well, every drug comes with some risk. That fact is hard to remember when we watch heart-warming, pharmaceutical commercials or read glossy ads promising renewed health and eternal well-being. These ads for prescription medications seem to be working and drug manufacturers are reaping the rewards.
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In fact, by 2011, prescription drugs accounted for nearly 10% of national health-related spending in the United States.(1) A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that by 2012, nearly three in every five American adults had taken a prescription drug sometime in the previous month. (2)

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New drugs can bring new risks for people who take them. Adverse drug events (ADEs) can lead to serious medical complications or death.

Estimates of how many people experience adverse drug events vary widely. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has estimated adverse drug events are responsible for approximately 280,000 hospital admissions annually in the U.S.(3) The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) has estimated that adverse drug events may have been responsible for between two and four million “serious, disabling, or fatal” injuries — including 128,000 patient deaths — in 2011. (4)

New drugs must be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) before they are sold. However, problems may still occur any time — before, during, or after the approval process. In fact, in recent years, several drugs have been linked with serious medical complications.

Some of these classes of drugs and examples include:

If you suffered severe complications or were hospitalized due to an adverse drug event, or if a relative died due to prescription drug-related complications, you may want to discuss your legal options with a knowledgeable attorney.

Weitz & Luxenberg may be able to help. We invite you to call us for a free consultation (855) 274-5624.

Consult your doctor before stopping any prescribed medication.

How Are Drugs Approved?

In 1938, Congress enacted the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FDC) Act. Since then, the drug approval process has continued to evolve.

FDA drug approval process.

In 1962, a sleeping pill called thalidomide, not approved for use in the U.S. due to efforts taken by Dr. Frances Kelsey at the FDA, resulted in thousands of babies being born with birth defects in Western Europe after their mothers had taken the drug during pregnancy. In response, Congress approved legislation requiring drug manufacturers to demonstrate to the FDA that any new drug is safe and effective for its intended use before selling it in the U.S.(5)

To secure FDA approval, drug manufacturers must conduct limited laboratory, animal, and clinical tests to determine how new drugs work and whether they are safe for use in humans.

A team at the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) composed of doctors, chemists, and other scientists reviews the evidence from these limited tests. If this group of FDA employees determines results presented from this testing demonstrate a level of safety and a measurable health benefit, the FDA may approve the drug.(6)  In some cases, especially for particular classes of drugs, the FDA may approve a drug with the stipulation that additional postmarketing testing be conducted or that postmarketing safety monitoring of particular adverse events be performed by the manufacturer.(7) (8)

Potential Risks from New Drugs

Sometimes the tests do not reveal all the potential risks of a new drug. In addition, in some cases, drug manufacturers fail to present all their evidence, submit erroneous or falsified information, fail to report adverse events or other study protocol violations, or fail to protect the safety of clinical trial patients.(9)

In addition, drug manufacturers may not communicate the risks of a drug to the public, even if the FDA discovers a problem at a clinical trial site during an inspection or after a medical journal publishes the results of a clinical trial. In fact, sometimes the problems can be substantial enough to cause or contribute to serious medical complications or even death.

Adverse effects of medicines have spawned thousands of lawsuits in recent years.

Somewhere down the line, the FDA may require updated label instructions or warnings for complications, but, by then, the damage may have already been done. For some patients, the warning may come too late.

Adverse effects of medicines have spawned thousands of lawsuits in recent years.

SGLT2 Inhibitors

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as Invokana and Farxiga, are a newer class of type 2 diabetes drugs. They can lower blood sugar by causing the kidneys to expel excess glucose through a patient’s urine by suppressing the SGLT2 protein.

This class of drugs includes:

  • Invokana (canagliflozin)
  • Invokamet (canagliflozin and metformin)
  • Invokamet XR (canagliflozin and metformin extended-release)
  • Farxiga (dapagliflozin)
  • Xigduo XR (dapagliflozin and metformin extended-release)
  • Qtern (dapagliflozin and saxagliptin)
  • Jardiance (empagliflozin)
  • Glyxambi (empagliflozin and linagliptin)
  • Synjardy (empagliflozin and metformin)
  • Synjardy XR (empagliflozin and metformin extended-release)

SGLT2 inhibitors have been linked to serious complications that can require hospitalization, including:

  • Increased acid in the blood (ketoacidosis)(10)
  • Loss of bone density and increased fracture risk (for Invokana, Invokamet, and Invokamet XR)(11)
  • Serious urinary tract infections leading to blood or kidney infections(12)
  • Increased risk of lower limb amputations (for Invokana, Invokamet, and Invokamet XR)(13) (14) (15)
  • Risk of kidney injury (for Invokana, Invokamet, Invokamet XR, Farxiga, and Xigduo XR)(16)

Invokana and Farxiga are among the most widely prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors. Both drugs are at the center of multiple lawsuits.

Fifty-five lawsuits alleging Invokana’s harmful effects were combined into a single multidistrict litigation (MDL) in the District of New Jersey in December 2016, with more lawsuits filed since.(17) MDLs can speed up the legal process and save attorneys and clients time and money because courts combine the cases for general discovery and pretrial proceedings

Multiple lawsuits have also been filed against the manufacturers of Farxiga. Complaints filed in federal court in New York claim Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca were aware Farxiga had the potential to cause kidney failure prior to the drug’s receiving FDA approval, but failed to adequately warn patients of the risks.(18) (19)

In April 2017, the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation combined lawsuits over Farxiga into an MDL in the Southern District of New York. (20)

Have you taken Invokana, Invokamet, Invokamet XR, Farxiga, or Xigduo XR and needed to be hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), renal failure, acute kidney injury (AKI), or urinary tract infections resulting in a blood infection (urosepsis) or kidney infection (pyelonephritis)? If so, Weitz & Luxenberg would like to hear from you.

The firm also wants to talk to you if a relative died from one of these conditions after taking an SGLT2 inhibitor. In addition, Weitz & Luxenberg is taking cases of people who were hospitalized or died due to developing a gangrenous lower limb and/or had to have a lower limb amputation after taking Invokana, Invokamet, or Invokamet XR.

We would feel privileged to assist you. For a free consultation and more information about your legal options, please contact us today.
(855) 274-5624

PPIs (Proton Pump Inhibitors)

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are some of the most popular heartburn medications on the market. Drugs in this class include:

  • Nexium (esomeprazole)
  • Prilosec (omeprazole)
  • Prevacid (lansoprazole)
  • Dexilant (dexlansoprazole)
  • Zegerid (omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate)
  • Protonix (pantoprazole)
  • AcipHex (rabeprazole)

Over-the-counter versions of PPIs include Prilosec OTC, Zegerid OTC, Nexium 24HR and Prevacid 24HR. Prevacid, Prilosec, AcipHex, Nexium, and Protonix are also approved for use in children of specific ages.(21)

Several studies have found increased risk or incidence of serious kidney conditions in patients who have been exposed to PPIs — kidney conditions that may require dialysis or result in death. These include:

  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)(22) (23)
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI)(24) (25)
  • Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)(26) (27)
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD)(28)
Proton Pump Inhibitors are popular heart burn medications.

If you were diagnosed with any of these kidney injuries, or a relative died because of any of these conditions after taking a PPI, you may be able to seek compensation for your injuries.

By May 2017, Weitz & Luxenberg Practice Group Co-Chair Paul Pennock estimated more than 5,000 potential lawsuits across the U.S. were being considered due to the adverse effects of PPIs on kidneys.  Weitz & Luxenberg alone is investigating approximately 3,500 cases. The claims involve kidney damage that is alleged to have developed from PPIs.(29) (30)

Nationwide, Paul Pennock noted roughly “122 suits have been filed, against AstraZeneca and other PPI makers such as Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble, which produces over-the-counter Prilosec.”(31)

Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics

Millions of Americans have taken fluoroquinolone antibiotics for bacterial infections, but in 2016 the FDA warned doctors to avoid prescribing them for certain urinary tract and respiratory infections. The agency determined the risks of serious side effects “generally outweigh the benefits for [these] patients …”(32)

Drugs in this class include:

  • Avelox (moxifloxiacin)
  • Cipro (ciprofloxacin)
  • Cipro XR (ciprofloxacin)
  • Factive (gemifloxacin)
  • Floxin (ofloxacin)
  • Levaquin (levofloxacin)
  • Maxaquin (lomefloxacin)
  • Noroxin (norfloxacin)
  • Proquin XR (ciprofloxacin)
  • Zagam (sparfloxacin)

The FDA has warned of potentially permanent side effects linked with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. In addition, studies have found increased risk of aortic aneurysms or dissections in patients taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics(33) (34) — conditions that can be life-threatening.(35) (36)

If you suffered an aortic dissection or aneurysm requiring hospitalization or surgery — or if you have a relative who died from one of those conditions — after taking a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, you may want to discuss your legal options with an attorney.

Weitz & Luxenberg may be able to help. We invite you to contact us for a free consultation.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) Drugs

Drugs prescribed for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) have been heavily marketed to treat “low testosterone,” or “Low T.” Multiple studies and reports have linked the use of these prescription drugs with significant increases in the risk of potentially serious and life-threatening cardiovascular complications. (37) (38) (39)

Some common brands of TRT drugs include:

  • Androderm
  • AndroGel
  • Axiron
  • Fortesta
  • Striant
  • Testim
Testosterone replacement therapy drugs.

In March 2015, the FDA required TRT drug manufacturers to warn patients of a potential increased risk of heart attack and stroke with testosterone prescription drugs. Less than a year earlier, the FDA had already added a warning to testosterone product labeling regarding the risk of blood clots in veins (venous thromboembolism), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), with use of prescription testosterone drugs. (40) (41)

The agency also cautioned against using the drugs to treat declining testosterone levels related to aging, noting testosterone replacement therapy is only indicated for “men who have low testosterone levels due to disorders of the testicles, pituitary gland, or brain that cause a condition called hypogonadism.” The FDA noted in its safety announcement it had “become aware that testosterone is being used extensively in attempts to relieve symptoms in men who have low testosterone for no apparent reason other than aging.” (42)

The FDA has noted abuse of testosterone, “usually at doses higher than those typically prescribed,” which can result in:(43)

  • Heart attack or failure
  • Stroke
  • Liver toxicity
  • Male infertility
  • Hostility
  • Aggression
  • Depression

As of early 2017, there were more than 6,000 lawsuits against makers of TRT drugs combined into a multidistrict litigation (MDL). (44) Plaintiffs claim they suffered heart attacks, strokes, deep vein thromboses, or pulmonary emboli after using the drugs.(45)

For a free consultation and more information about your legal options, please contact us today.

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If you have suffered a heart attack, stroke, or venous thromboembolic event such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), or a close relative has died due to these problems or sudden cardiac death after using a testosterone prescription drug, Weitz & Luxenberg wants to hear from you. You may be entitled to compensation for medical treatment or other costs.

Xarelto, Other Direct Oral Anticoagulants

Studies have found the blood thinner Xarelto can cause serious bleeding events (46) such as gastrointestinal bleeding (47) and intracranial hemorrhage (48) as well as serious wound complications and infections. (49) (50) (51) (52).   NOACs such as Xarelto are touted as a potential replacement for warfarin, a standard, well-established anticoagulant.

As of January 2017, there were nearly 15,000 cases against the manufacturer of Xarelto pending in a multidistrict litigation.(53) In 2014, hundreds of other lawsuits against the maker of Pradaxa, another NOAC, ended with a $650 million settlement.(54)

If you took Xarelto and had to be hospitalized while on the medication — or a relative died due to a bleeding event while on the medication — you may want to talk with an attorney about your options. Weitz & Luxenberg can help you understand your options.

How Weitz & Luxenberg Can Help

For more than 30 years, Weitz & Luxenberg has been at the forefront of complex product liability-related litigation. Our attorneys have secured more than $17 billion in awards and settlements for clients.

Although past results are no guarantee of future success, Weitz & Luxenberg possesses the experience and resources necessary to pursue justice for clients harmed by the negligence of large drug companies.

If you have been injured by a defective drug, we can help you understand your legal options, beginning with a free consultation. Call us at (855) 274-5624 or fill out the form on this page. One of our representatives will be in touch with you shortly.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, May). Health, United States, 2013. With Special Feature on Prescription Drugs (p. 20). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus13.pdf
  2. Kantor, E.D., et al. (2015, November 3). Trends in Prescription Drug Use Among Adults in the United States From 1999-2012. Retrieved from http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2467552
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention. Foreword (p. iii). Retrieved from https://health.gov/hcq/pdfs/ade-action-plan-508c.pdf
  4. Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2012, May 31). QuarterWatch: Monitoring FDA MedWatch Reports. Anticoagulants the Leading Reported Drug Risk in 2011. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/quarterwatch/pdfs/2011Q4.pdf
  5. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2014, December 19). About FDA. Significant Dates in U.S. Food and Drug Law History. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Milestones/ucm128305.htm
  6. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, January 29). Development & Approval Process (Drugs). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/
  7. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (n.d.). Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/rems/
  8. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, March 10). Accelerated Approval Program. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals/ucm313768.htm
  9. Seife, C. (2015, April). Research Misconduct Identified by the US Food and Drug Administration. Out of Sight, Out of Mind, Out of the Peer-Reviewed Literature. Retrieved from http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2109855
  10. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2015, December 4). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA revises labels of SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes to include warnings about too much acid in the blood and serious urinary tract infections. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm475463.htm
  11. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2015, September 10). Invokana and Invokamet (canagliflozin): Drug Safety Communication - New Information on Bone Fracture Risk and Decreased Bone Mineral Density. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm461876.htm
  12. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2015, December 4). SGLT2 Inhibitors: Drug Safety Communication - Labels to Include Warnings About Too Much Acid in the Blood and Serious Urinary Tract Infections. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm475553.htm
  13. European Medicines Agency. (2017, February 10). PRAC concludes that diabetes medicine canagliflozin may contribute to risk of toe amputation. Risk may also apply to other medicines in the same class. Retrieved from http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Referrals_document/SGLT2_inhibitors_Canagliflozin_20/Recommendation_provided_by_Pharmacovigilance_Risk_Assessment_Committee/WC500221431.pdf
  14. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, May 18). FDA Drug Safety Communication: Interim clinical trial results find increased risk of leg and foot amputations, mostly affecting the toes, with the diabetes medicine canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet); FDA to investigate. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm500965.htm
  15. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2017, May 16). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA confirms increased risk of leg and foot amputations with the diabetes medicine canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet, Invokamet XR) Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm557507.htm
  16. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, June 14). Canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) and Dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR): Drug Safety Communication - Strengthened Kidney Warnings. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm506554.htm
  17. U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (2016, December 7). In re: Invokana (Canagliflozin) Products Liability Litigation. Retrieved from http://www.jpml.uscourts.gov/sites/jpml/files/MDL-2750-Initial_Transfer-12-16.pdf
  18. U.S. District Court, S.D. New York. (2016, December 16). Collins v. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., AstraZeneca LP, and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. Retrieved from http://www.nysd.uscourts.gov/pacer.php
  19. U.S. District Court, S.D. New York. (2016, December 20). Cormier v. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., AstraZeneca LP, and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. Retrieved from http://www.nysd.uscourts.gov/pacer.php
  20. U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (2017, April 6). In re: Farxiga (Dapagliflozin) Products Liability Litigation. MDL No. 2776. Retrieved from http://www.jpml.uscourts.gov/sites/jpml/files/MDL-2776-Initial_Transfer-03-17.pdf
  21. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2013, August). Proton Pump Inhibitors: Use In Pediatric Patients. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Medicare-Medicaid-Coordination/Fraud-Prevention/Medicaid-Integrity-Education/Pharmacy-Education-Materials/Downloads/ppi-pediatric-factsheet.pdf
  22. Arora, P., et al. (2016, August 3). Proton pump inhibitors are associated with increased risk of development of chronic kidney disease. Retrieved from https://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-016-0325-4
  23. Lazarus, B. (2016, February). Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26752337
  24. Klepser, D.G., et al. (2013, July 16). Proton pump inhibitors and acute kidney injury: a nested case-control study. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23865955
  25. Antoniou, T., et al. (2015, April 2). Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of acute kidney injury in older patients a population-based cohort study. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571830/
  26. Sampathkumar, K. (2013, July). Acute interstitial nephritis due to proton pump inhibitors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3741979/
  27. Geevasinga, N., et al. (2006, May 4). Proton pump inhibitors and acute interstitial nephritis. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16630752
  28. Peng, Y-C., et al. (2016, April 18). Association Between the Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of ESRD in Renal Diseases: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839840/
  29. U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (2016, October 17). In re: Proton-Pump Inhibitor Products Liability Litigation. Memorandum in Support of Plaintiffs’ Motion for Transfer. Retrieved from http://www.litigationandtrial.com/files/2016/10/Nexium-Motion-JPML.pdf
  30. Lupkin, S., & Bartolone, P. (2017, May 17). Does This Popular Stomach Drug Damage Your Kidneys? Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/does-this-popular-stomach-drug-damage-your-kidneys
  31. Ibid.
  32. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, May 12). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm500143.htm
  33. Lee, C.C., et al. (2015, November). Risk of Aortic Dissection and Aortic Aneurysm in Patients Taking Oral Fluoroquinolone. Retrieved from http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2451282
  34. Daneman, N. (2015). Fluoroquinolones and collagen associated severe adverse events: a longitudinal cohort study. Retrieved from http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/11/e010077
  35. American Heart Association. (n.d.). Types of Aneurysms. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/VascularHealth/AorticAneurysm/Types-of-Aneurysms_UCM_454436_Article.jsp#.WHP0CBsrJhF
  36. Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Diseases and Conditions. Aortic dissection. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/aortic-dissection/basics/complications/con-20032930
  37. Basaria, S., et al. (2010, July 8). Adverse Events Associated with Testosterone Administration. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1000485#t=article
  38. Vigen, R., et al. (2013, November 6). Association of testosterone therapy with mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in men with low testosterone levels. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24193080
  39. Finkle, W.D., et al. (2014, January 29). Increased Risk of Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction Following Testosterone Therapy Prescription in Men. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085805
  40. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2014, June 19). FDA adding general warning to testosterone products about potential for venous blood clots. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm401746.htm
  41. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2015, March 3). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA cautions about using testosterone products for low testosterone due to aging; requires labeling change to inform of possible increased risk of heart attack and stroke with use. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm436259.htm
  42. Ibid.
  43. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, October 25). Testosterone and Other Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS): FDA Statement – Risks Associated With Abuse and Dependence. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm526151.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery
  44. U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois. (n.d.). MDL 2545; In re: Testosterone Replacement Therapy Products Liability Litigation. Member Cases. Retrieved from http://www.ilnd.uscourts.gov/mdl-details.aspx?UGlDS1bLxpRHyfdf3l5DJQ==
  45. U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (2014, June 6). In re: AndroGel Products Liability Litigation. MDL No. 2545. Transfer Order. Retrieved from http://www.jpml.uscourts.gov/sites/jpml/files/MDL-2545-Initial_Transfer-05-14.pdf
  46. Cieri, N.E., et al. (2017, February 3). Retrospective Evaluation of Postoperative Adverse Drug Events in Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban After Major Orthopedic Surgery Compared with Standard Therapy in a Community Hospital. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/phar.1888/abstract
  47. Graham, D.J., et al. (2016, November 1). Stroke, Bleeding, and Mortality Risks in Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries Treated With Dabigatran or Rivaroxaban for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27695821
  48. Ibid.
  49. Jensen, C.D., et al. (2011, January). Return to theatre following total hip and knee replacement, before and after the introduction of rivaroxaban: a retrospective cohort study. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21196550
  50. Cieri, N.E., et al. (2017, February 3). Retrospective Evaluation of Postoperative Adverse Drug Events in Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban After Major Orthopedic Surgery Compared with Standard Therapy in a Community Hospital. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/phar.1888/abstract
  51. Jameson, S.S. (2012, September 5). Wound complications following rivaroxaban administration: a multicenter comparison with low-molecular-weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis in lower limb arthroplasty. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22832942
  52. Brimmo, O. (2016, June). Rivaroxaban Use for Thrombosis Prophylaxis Is Associated with Early Periprosthetic Joint Infection. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26796776
  53. U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (2017, January 17). MDL Statistics Report – Distribution of Pending MDL Dockets by District. (LAE) Retrieved from http://www.jpml.uscourts.gov/sites/jpml/files/Pending_MDL_Dockets_By_District-January-17-2017.pdf
  54. U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois. (2014, December 29). In re: Pradaxa (Dabigatran Etexilate) Products Liability Litigation. Case Management Order Number 88. Retrieved from http://www.ilsd.uscourts.gov/documents/mdl2385/cmo88.pdf

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