PCE – PERC

PCE or PERC is classified as a “likely carcinogen” by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).(1) This widely used chemical compound is found in many industrial, commercial, and consumer applications.(2) Local businesses may be releasing this toxic chemical into the air, water, and soil of your community at risk. Those business should pay to clean up this health risk.
Speak to an Attorney Now

What Is PCE-PERC?

The Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR) describes PCE-PERC (also known as perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene) as a nonflammable colorless liquid. People exposed to it in high concentrations can get sick and even die.(3)

According to the EPA, this volatile organic compound is manufactured to be used as a solvent. It is primarily used in dry cleaning and degreasing, but is also found in automotive care products, cleaning and furniture care products, lubricants and greases, adhesives and sealants, and paints and coatings.(4) Even inks used by printers can contain PCE-PERC.(5)

Mechanic working on a car

Industries Where PCE-PERC Is Used

There are a number of Industries which regularly utilize PCE-PERC, either in their refining or manufacturing processes, or in the products they produce for consumers.

Some of the industries where the compound is found include:

  • Automotive.
  • Cinematic & film.
  • Coal.
  • Dry cleaning.
  • Metal.
  • Petroleum.
  • Printing.
  • Textiles.(6)

PCE-PERC was first developed in 1821 with U.S. production peaking in the 1980s. Industrial emissions are the primary mechanism for distributing contamination in the environment. Today, it is present in varying concentrations in air, water, and soil samples.(7)

Ways PCE-PERC Gets Into the Environment

PCE-PERC contamination is due to industrial and commercial manufacturing or processes.

Contamination can occur in several ways:

  • Direct release into the atmosphere through steam, gas, or smoke.
  • Improper disposal or dumping of hazardous waste.
  • Leaks or leaching from pipes, containers, and tanks which may be underground.
  • Spills during transport.
  • Vaporization during use.

No matter the way in which the compound gets into the environment, it presents an environmental and health crisis for communities. Local governments may be required to spend a large amount of money to clean up the ill effects caused by PCE -PERC.

Environmental Impact

The ATSDR reports that PCE-PERC has been “found in at least 945 of the 1,699 National Priorities List sites identified” by the EPA. These sites are among the most hazardous waste sites in the nation.(8)

Yet, these are not all the sites that may be affected. There may be contamination sites which have not yet been detected or established.

Have you been exposed to PCE-PERC as a result of nearby industrial operations? Contact us now for a free evaluation.

Get a Free Case Review

Who Risks Exposure?

Communities near manufacturing and refining plants have an increased risk of exposure to PCE-PERC. It may be present in the local air, water and soil.

Also, people living near dry cleaning establishments are at greater risk for exposure. Finally, those who regularly use consumer products containing the toxic compound may be at risk due to repeated exposure.

Health Effects of Exposure to PCE-PERC

PCE-PERC enters the human body through contaminated drinking water, air, or skin contact. Exposure can have serious health effects, both in the short-term and long-term. In fact, too much exposure in a short period of time can even result in death.(9) (10)

Short-term health effects of PCE-PERC exposure include:

  • Coordination problems.
  • Dizziness.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Headache.
  • Irritation of eyes.
  • Irritation of respiratory system.
  • Nausea.
  • Skin irritation, redness and chapping.
  • Vomiting(11)

Long-term health effects of PCE-PERC exposure include changes in:

  • Attention.
  • Memory.
  • Mood.
  • Reaction time.
  • Vision.(12)

Cancers that might be linked with PCE-PERC exposure include:

  • Bladder cancer.
  • Multiple myeloma.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.(13)

Because of these health risks, federal and state governments have regulations and laws in place which are meant to protect people against PCE-PERC exposure. Should communities suspect there are or have been any violations of applicable laws or regulations, they should contact their local and state governments to begin testing by certified labs.

Safe Water Regulations

The arm of the federal government with regulatory oversight responsibilities for safe water is the EPA.

The EPA has set a maximum contamination level of 0.005 milligrams per liter as the national primary drinking water standard for PCE-PERC.(14)

Additionally, public water supplies are required to undergo regular testing for contaminants. Results of these tests are published in a yearly “Consumer Confidence Report” (CCR). The most recent CCR for your supplier is on file with the EPA and may also be available online. See for more information about CCRs.

Private wells also need to be tested regularly. Information about private well testing is available from the EPA.

Air Quality Regulations

Air quality standards have been set by another arm of the federal government, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

OSHA has set “an 8-hour time weighted average permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm, an acceptable ceiling exposure limit of 200 ppm, and a maximum peak of 300 ppm (not to be exceeded for more than 5 minutes of any 3-hour period)” for PCE-PERC air contamination.(15)

PCE-PERC has a “sharp sweet odor” according to an EPA fact sheet.(16) People can smell it in the air when it is present at least “at a level of 1 part in 1 million parts of air (1 ppm)” according to the ADSTR.(17)

Accountability for Damages from PCE-PERC

Industrial and commercial companies are responsible for the safe use, storage, transport, and disposal of toxic chemicals from their businesses. If they compromise the safety of your community’s environment or health, they must be held to account.

Many communities across the country have already engaged Weitz & Luxenberg’s team of environmental legal professionals to represent them in their fight for justice. Weitz & Luxenberg represents clients across the country, from those harmed by oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico to those affected by gas leaks in Porter Ranch, California. Many of our clients have suffered water supply contamination including in Hoosick Falls and Petersburgh, New York, and Merrimack, New Hampshire.

In more than 30 years of legal practice, Weitz & Luxenberg has taken on corporate giants and won. We have fought powerful companies like Exxon Mobile, Shell Oil, and Monsanto to see that our clients get the justice they deserve.

We have a record of making corporate polluters pay for the harm they have done to whole communities. If your community has been affected by PCE-PERC, we can help you resolve this legal issue.

  1. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/tetrachloroethylene.pdf
  2. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2018, July 24). Risk Evaluation for Perchloroethylene. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/risk-evaluation-perchloroethylene
  3. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (2014, December 15). ToxFAQs™ for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48
  4. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2018, July 24). Risk Evaluation for Perchloroethylene. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/risk-evaluation-perchloroethylene
  5. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine Bookshelf. (2014). Tetrachloroethylene. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK294284/
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid
  8. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (2014, December 15). ToxFAQs™ for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48
  9. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (2014, December 15). ToxFAQs™ for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48
  10. ToxTown, U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2017, May 31). Perchloroethylene (PCE, PERC). Retrieved from https://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/chemicals-and-contaminants/perchloroethylene-pce-perc
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2014, December 15). ToxFAQs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48
  14. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.) What are EPA's drinking water regulations for tetrachloroethylene? Retrieved from https://safewater.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/212075597-4-What-are-EPA-s-drinking-water-regulations-for-tetrachloroethylene-
  15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2014, December 15). ToxFAQs for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48
  16. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/tetrachloroethylene.pdf
  17. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (2014, December 15). ToxFAQs™ for Tetrachloroethylene (PERC). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48

Get the Help You Need Today

Free Case Review